# Mathematics

In terms, **mathematics** (CR:583) (LH:14) (**TL**:597|#51) is the language of science, the letters of which are numbers, intermixed with various characters and symbols, such as triangles, circles, lines, and other geometrical figures.

## Overview

### Egyptian numbers

The following are the hieroglyphs for Egyptian numbers:^{[1]}

The number one 1 is a single vertical line: (or one digit finger). The number ten 10 is an upside down U symbol: or cattle hobble. The number hundred 100 is a rope coil: (or wind symbol). The number thousand 1,000 is a lotus plant symbol . The number ten-thousand 10,000 is a line with a bend at the top: (or a bent finger). A hundred thousand 100,000 is a tadpole (or frog): . A million 1,000,000 is a figure of a man (or god) half seated with his arms raised: .^{[2]}

### Operations

The addition and subtraction symbols are feet walking: (means plus (+) or addition if in the direction of the text) and (means minus (-) or subtraction opposite the direction of text). Note that Egyptian text is generally written right to left (like the Hebrews and Arabs), some pyramid text is written left to right.

The divide symbol is the mouth hieroglyph: , when is written over a number to mean divide. Thus means 1/100.

## Quotes

The following are related quotes:

- “Science is written in the language of
**mathematics**and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it; without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth.”- — Galileo (1623),
*Publication*^{[4]}

- — Galileo (1623),

- “A
**mathematician**may say anything he pleases — but a physicist must be a least partially sane.”- — Willard Gibbs (c.1895),
*Publication*^{[5]}

- — Willard Gibbs (c.1895),

- “We possess written records concerning the state of mathematics in Egypt and Mesopotamia (Iraq) from as early as about 2000 BC. Around 500 BC, mathematical knowledge spread to the Greek world. This included not only modern Greece, but also the coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and Magna Grecia (southern Italy and Sicily). About 300 BC, the center of mathematics moved from Athens to Alexandria in Egypt, where it was to remain for the next 800 years; for it was in Alexandria that all the books were kept.”
- — William Anglin (1995),
*The Heritage of Thales*(pg. 4)^{[6]}

- — William Anglin (1995),

## End matter

### See also

- Mathematical introduction
- Mathematical thermodynamics

### References

- ↑ Egyptian numerals – Wikipedia.
- ↑ Egyptian Mathematics and Numbers – DiscoveringEgypt.com.
- ↑ Aristotle. (322BC).
*The Complete Works of Aristotle*,*Volume Two*(editor: Jonathan Barnes) (§: Metaphysics, pgs. 1552-; quote, pg. 1553). Princeton, 1995. - ↑ Hsieh, Ching-Yao; Ye, Meng-Hua. (1991).
*Economics, Philosophy, and Physics*(pg. 119). M.E. Sharpe. - ↑ (a) Author. (1944). “Article”,
*Scientific Monthly*, Dec.

(b) Leerburger, Benedict A. (1963).*Josiah W. Gibbs: American Theoretical Physicist*(pg. 101). Watts. - ↑ Anglin, William; Lambek, J. (1995).
*The Heritage of Thales*(pg. 4). Springer.

### External links

- Mathematics – Hmolpedia 2020.
- Timeline of Mathematics – Mathigon.org.